Norton Scientific

Norton Scientific Inc. designs scientific measurement tools. The Company’s first product targets researchers in the field of Proteomics, while also is developing its IP base in mechatronic systems, microfluidics, guided wave optical detection, multi-variate analysis software for real-time process control, and macromolecular and/or nanoparticle separations.


Norton Scientific designs the measurement tools to enable advances in proteomics, nanotechnology and green technology to proceed from idea to production.

In this manner, Norton (NSI) is growing upon the success of its first product targeting researchers in the field of Proteomics, while also developing its IP base in mechatronic systems, microfluidics, guided wave optical detection, multi-variate analysis software for real-time process control, and macromolecular and/or nanoparticle separations.

Proteomics is the branch of genetics that studies the full set of proteins encoded by a genome. The potential of Norton lies in the continued development, introduction and commercialization of measurement systems for use in a wide range of markets from healthcare, biomaterials and green industries to viticulture, including brewing.

This is the Future of Analytical Instruments

By successfully integrating guided wave laser optics, microfluidics and robust data analysis software, researchers at Norton Scientific have invented a proprietary laser-based product that is now being marketed to laboratories and universities around the world.

Targeting proteomics applications including crystallographers, the company is introducing this low-cost analytical system to researchers in biopharmaceutical and healthcare, advanced materials, food and beverage, bio-materials and in-water pollution monitoring.

Norton intends to market simple-to-use products that can be used by technicians, rather than analysts, to be incorporated into any laboratories’ own process control systems. Due to various applications of these materials, “macromolecule” covers the entire range of polymers and biopolymers − including proteins and peptides − that can be analyzed using the intellectual property owned by NSI, such as contained in the revolutionary protein aggregation monitor (PAM).

How to choose the right size Grow Tents for your Plants?

How to choose the right size Grow Tents for your Plants

Are you looking for something productive and accommodating both at the same time? A grow tent that maintains a perfect balance between productivity and accommodation. We want to grow plants within an open and wide space but sometimes we do not have much space and a suitable setup for the proper growth of the plants.

Growth tents are the solution to solving the space and planting problem at the same time. A right grow tent allows you to grow plants in a spacious and suitable environment for the plants. This becomes the place specially dedicated to the growth and development of plants. The grow lights and proper oxygen inside the grow tent give plants the most essential nutrients.

A grow tent is the best way to grow plants in a limited, defined space with resources at their maximum. So, what else do you need? Now the problem is the choice of a right grow tent for which all the information in this article is gathered and compiled.

Factors determining the right size of the Grow Tent

Grow tent is the best option when it comes to saving space and growing plants with the best resources. If you are a person you do not want to dig holes, and hammer nails on the walls for the light and vents, then grow tents are best for you. They make your work easy and compiled. Your growing space becomes ready for the plants.

They also allow you to choose the size and conditions according to the plants. It also provides you a sustainable lifestyle through which you can have better quality food including vegetables, and fruits throughout the year, fresh from your garden.

The trend of grow tents is increasing with time and household grows tents are of special importance because people prefer them more than outdoor grow tents. With the increasing interest in grow tents, one should have proper knowledge about what they need to grow in their tents and how they can be installed. Though they are pretty easy to install.

Choosing the right size of a grow tent is very important. To help you choose the best for yourself, we have listed down these factors on which the choice of size of a grow tent depends upon. All the details written down will help you in making the right choice of a grow tent. Let’s get into discussing the details:

  • Size of the Plants
  • Spacing available
  • Number of Plants
  • The location you are growing plants in
  • Grow Lights
  • Power Source
  • Ventilation and other pieces of equipment
  • Price

Size of the Plants

The size of the plant’s matters when it comes to choosing the right-sized grow tents. The seeds are small but as they grow up, adult plants are formed. The height of the plants can not be predicted beforehand. However, it can be estimated. Some people get a kitten, but they forget that it is a living thing and grows. It will become bigger and bigger and would require more space te house. Likewise, the plants require more space when they become an adult.

If you are thinking of indoor gardening, you will need large space and requirements for the plants to make them grow properly inside the house. So, make sure that when you plant the seed inside then the grow tent has high and roomy ceilings. If the plants are veils then their height can be controlled and elongated according to our will but if you want to grow potted plants, then these plants can grow a lot bigger and turn into trees which will need replantation in the outdoor garden later on.

Space Available

Space that is available to you in your home for growing plants indoors is also an important factor in the choice of the right size of grow tent. Even if you live in the smallest possible house, still there can be made some space for a small plant. So, choose the space for the grow tent in your house that where would it be placed s that the plants also get a good amount of oxygen. There is always enough room for a tiny and modest grow tent in the house.

You just need to make sure that you place the grow tent at a place where your daily chores and activities are not getting disturbed or you stumble onto the grow tent mistakenly. The whole tent will fall along with the grow lights and the other setup within. The spacious area will also allow the plants to grow properly and to their fullest.

Space should be separate just for the grow tents where you can easily go and observe the growth of plants. Check out that how far is the grow tent away from the light source. Also, measure your growing space before buying the grow tent for your indoor growing space. This will also help you get the right to grow a tent covering just the limited space.

Number of Plants

More things require more space. So you would need to keep things in bigger storage space. Likewise, the more is the number of plants, the more will be the space required for it. You need to get a grow tent that has enough space to hold all your plants. This is also important because they may get all the plants either short or long should be getting light, air, and oxygen from all sides and sources.

The light from the grow lights in the grow tent is reaching them correctly and the oxygen supply is also good for the proper growth and development of the plants. For a large harvest, you would need to invest in multiple grow tents to accommodate all the growth and plants.

The location you are growing plants in

The location of the plating process also matters a lot. Plants need proper food in the form of fertilizers; a good amount of light, and oxygen for their nourished growth and development. You need to see that how much space you have for the grow tent and at which spot in your home. This will also impact the decision whether you will keep the grow tent inside or you will convert it into an outdoor greenhouse. So firstly measure the location at which you will place your grow tent, otherwise, it won’t fit the place and you could get a wrong-sized, bigger or smaller tent.

Here are some choices for you to decide where can put your grow tent in. The location and size of the grow tent come hand in hand.

Build a grow tent in your home

The grow tent can be placed inside the house in your living room but it is not at all a good option for placing the grow tent in a communal area.  It looks unaesthetic with all the growths and tent area. Not to mention the smell of fertilizers and the sound of the ventilation system.

Build a grow tent on the attic

The attic is another popular location for the growth of a plant in grow tents. It comes with its environment and conditions like lighting, heat, air, and oxygen. Attics are usually small in size so they grow tents for this area might be smaller. This results in a smaller length of the plants.

So, if you have a lesser number of plants to grow in the grow tent then you can use the attic for putting the grow tent. Winters may also be harsh for the plants in the attic.

Build a grow tent in the garage

A garage can also serve as a nice space for the growth of plants in the grow tent. It is usually a bigger place and can be used to put multiple grow tents with higher roofs. It can be a bit problematic concerning the air and oxygen content available to the plants. This may lessen the amount of oxygen for each plant.

Insulations can be a problem here in the garage as there is not a proper ventilation system for the growth of plants. But you can provide a controlled environment inside the grow tent with fans and proper ventilation for their growth in the garage as their happy place.

Build a grow tent in the basement

The basement is also a very popular location for the growth of plants in the grow tent. You can build your grow tent in the basement if you have a larger one. You can build a proper system of grow tents with multiple of them joined together for growing more plants. In the Basement, the problem of ventilation is the same. There is no proper ventilation in most of the basements so a well-equipped grow tent is required for the plants in the basement.

A fresh air source is needed for the growth of fresh air sources.

This shows that whatever the location is, there is no location called ideal location. You will need to provide separate sources of everything needed essentially by the plants.

Grow Lights

Grow lights are the growth stimulators for your plants in the grow tents because we need a light source that can mimic the sun’s rays and heat for the proper growth and development of the plants. Plants need light for the process of photosynthesis which means the mak3ing of glucose for their proper functioning and development. The 25-50 watts light source is needed for providing the plats with enough heat without burning them. Broad-spectrum light is needed for the larger tents and lesser grow lights are required for the plant’s processes.

Power Source

The power source for the grow tents also depends upon the size of the grow tent. So, this will also be considered when looking at the best size of the grow tents. If you have a small tent, a common outlet will be okay. But if the grow tent is larger, then the amperage of power required to light up the grow tent will also be more. These lights also help a little in the growth of plants. If you will use a high amperage power or light source in a small grow tent, then it can be hazardous for the plants. They can get burned.

Ventilation and other pieces of Equipment

Grow tents provide a safe and healthy zone for the growth and development of plants. Lants require proper air and ventilation for their growth. It helps the plants flourish. Plants need oxygen to make food and carbon dioxide to breathe. If proper ventilation is not available they will die.


Price is indeed an important factor in any purchase. Buying the most expensive grow tent does not guarantee that its quality would be the same. You should be generous in making a decision and should not hurry. Buy the one which fits your space as you would be singing it for growing plants indoors. Think of it like you invest money in a car or a house, It is important for both your environment inside and out of the body. Moreover, larger sizes of grow tents require more money than the smaller ones.

Choose the right Brands:

Choosing the right brand is very important same as choosing the right size is. There are many companies and brands out there who are offering grow tents and grow lights but here we are suggesting to you the best out of the best ones. Let’s have a look at the list of reliable brands offering good grow tents:

  • Viparspectra Grow tents
  • Vivosun Grow tents
  • Mars Hydro Grow tent
  • Opulent systems  Grow tent
  • Gorilla Grow Tent
  • Cools Grow Tent, etc


Finding the correct size of a grow tent can be a bit challenging and overwhelming. So, we have tried to help you in deciding the best and right grow tent for yourself. Not just the right size but the right company too. If you take out time, measure your space where you want to grow plants, and put the grow tent then it would become easier to make the right choice. It will also clear your mind about the money you should spend on buying a grow tent.

Mattress Sizes Canada Guide

Mattress Sizes Canada Guide

Mattress Sizes Canada: Right mattress size for your bed is the primary consideration for getting a better night’s sleep. Comfortability is not always the first choice of your mattress purchase.

The correct size of your bed accordingly is also important. No legal guidelines are available for the mattress sizes but you are guaranteed enough to find the correct proportioned mattress size your needs accordingly.

There are six dimensions that are probably used in Canada and maximum manufacturers make these sizes abundantly. You can easily find them in every store.

The most preferred purchases on the market are Twin, Twin XL, Double, Queen, King, and California King. They are preferred due to their most practical use and common production. We have listed all the important guidelines on the market for rendering your search an emphatic one.

Mattress Sizes and Dimensions

Mattress Type Width * LengthBest For
Olympic Queen66″ x 80”Preferably for couples who look to have more space than Queen.
King76″ × 80″For Couples looking to have plentiful space for sleeping.
California King72″ × 84″People with having larger families or co-sleepers.
Texas King80″ × 98″Specifically for taller people than that of those with average height. 
Wyoming King84″ x 84″Young families who prefer to sleep together
Alaska King108″ x 108″Couples who prefer to sleep with children or pets.
Crib28″ x 52″Babies
Cot30″ x 75″Toddlers
Twin38″ × 75″Small children
Twin XL38″ × 80″Taller children or adults
Super Single48″ × 75″Couples or children who prefer to have larger space for sleeping.
Double54″ × 74″Shorter couples or single adults
Double XL54″ × 80″Couples who love to have more leg room.
Queen60″ × 80″Preferably an option for most couples.

There are plenty of options to choose from in myriad different sizes. Highly used sizes in Canada are Twin, Twin XL, Double, Queen, King, and California King. They are widely used because of their practicality and a wide range of mattress brands produce these sizes abundantly.

Standard Bed Sizes in Canada

There are six dimensions that are widely used and maximum manufacturers make mattresses in these sizes. A quick review of the standard bed sizes in Canada is as.


This is the smallest bed size in Canada. Twin/Single is a perfect choice for a child’s room, guest room, or daybed. They are only 74 ½ inches long making it difficult for maximum adults.

If space is lacking and space is only for a single adult, then a twin XL mattress is a perfect alternative. The size of this mattress is a queen or king-sized mattress, but skinnier. Its skinnier posture renders it a good option for smaller rooms.


This is a perfect piece if you are looking to see it serve your child for years. Size is popular in teenagers. Length is the same as the twin mattresses but 15 inches wider offering plenty of space for a single person to stretch in whatever way. However, it doesn’t have enough space for two.


Queen beds are perfect for single adults and for couples who don’t have any issue touching each other. This is a great option if you want to go with extra space in your living room and you won’t have to sacrifice your personal space as well.


If you move a lot at night or want to maximize your space when sharing a bed, then the king is the best suitable choice for you. This is 16-inches wider than the queen offering enough space for personal freedom. But be aware it can be more for few doorways. So, measure the size of the room well before purchasing it.

California King

4 inches narrower and 4 inches longer than a traditional king-size bed, a California King-size mattress is good for better doorways. It will perfectly balance things for longer bedrooms. California King is perfectly suitable for all those who want space at the foot of the bed.

Things to Consider Before Buying Mattress

Things to Consider Before Buying Mattress

Number of Sleepers

A twin or Double-size mattress is perfect for an individual sleeper. It will offer him enough room to have a night of quality sleep. Still, if you got space and budget, you can also afford to have a bigger mattress.

Queen or King-sized mattresses are perfect for couples. A double-size mattress will be the next best option if space is shorter. Double size is perfect because it was designed perfectly for two people.

But sometimes, things are way different from individual or couple instead couples sleep with kids or pets. For this purpose, King or California King-sized mattresses are considered to be the best options.

Two or more people can sleep comfortably on these mattresses. But it is also concerned with the space available in the room. If we place a bigger mattress in a smaller room, the place will be cramped and uncomfortable.

Surely, bedrooms are for sleeping, and sometimes leaving a bigger size mattress is also worthy for extra comfort. So, whenever you are up to purchase a mattress, consider the number of sleepers.


Height is an important factor to be considered while deciding the perfect mattress size for yourself. Height will get more significant if you are taller.

For taller height, XL or California King Mattresses are the perfect choices because they provide more length which can easily accommodate a person with long legs. Or you may need more height due to your dog who sleeps by your feet side.

Now it is up to you to consider and figure out how much room is going to be needed for you. This height is an extremely important factor to offer you better sleep. If you are not comfortable with the height then you are only compromising your sleep for the height issue.

But you don’t need to worry or compromise your sleep. There is a wide range of dimensions available to greatly fit yours. So, while buying your mattress, ponder about the height deeply.

Room Size

Room size is another important factor to be considered while selecting a mattress. The room is the place where you are going to sleep and the same place where you are going to place a mattress.

The size of the mattress can make your room feel empty or overloaded. If the size of the mattress is good, then it will accommodate itself to the room and will offer a perfect feel.

If the size of the room is smaller, then a smaller mattress size will be great after considering the other needs in the room as well. Sacrificing a mattress for a dresser is a worthy choice.

Before purchase, measure the size of the room to figure how much space will be great to work with. You can set a pace by adding a bed if you have already one offering you note of insight for going to market or online purchase.

Space measurements will make sure that what number is good to safely navigate through and to leave space for other furniture. If the size of the room is larger, then it is royalty to have a larger mattress.

Mattress Depth

Width and length are done by following standard guidelines but they vary a bit in their depth. Normally, depth varies achieving to the manufacturers and prices. Mattresses with lesser depths are cheaper because they offer lesser support and comfort than higher depth mattresses.

The depth of mattresses varies from 6 to 16 inches. 10 inches and above is best for having a better sleep. Moreover, thicker mattresses tend to serve you longer.


Budget is always an important factor in the purchase of bigger and quality products. Mattress purchase can’t go without this too.

You should ensure about the budget and then look at the mattress sizes that which size will come out to be budget valuing and good for which mattress size. Even if your budget is tight, you are not needed to go for a cheaper mattress size on the market.

Going for a well-made and comfortable purchase is better than going Queen Size mattress on the same budget.


What Are The Standard Bed Dimensions in Canada?

Standards of dimensions vary from country to country. In Canada, there are majorly six dimensions which are almost produced by every manufacturer.

These standard mattress sizes in Canada are Twin (also called Single), Twin XL, Full (also called Double), Queen, Standard King, and California King. The smaller or full-size bed is perfect for children and teens. On the other hand, Queen-sized or larger is a preference of adults.

Dimensions of the mattress also vary for couples and those couples who sleep with their pets or children.

But most importantly, whenever you are going to purchase a mattress, measure the dimensions of your room to see which dimension will comfortably fit in it. Measure door size as well.

What Size Bed Do I Need?

If we look by general rule, then the largest mattress is the best choice due to the expertly set in the room. You should also consider your height and either you are going to share it with somebody or not.

This is a thumb rule that it should be of enough size to provide the best chance of having a perfect sleep at night by accommodating you and your partner or also with pet and children but without troubling anyone even when you spread out.

Ideally, it should be having a 12-inches space between you and your partner without disturbing through the rollover.

What is edge support, and why is it important in a mattress?

When you sit on the edge of the mattress, it goes down due to no edge support. Edge is powerful support on the perimeter of a mattress.

The sagging of a mattress with adequate edge support gets lower. You can also be less like to experience an inadvertently roll off a bed with adequate edge support. Mattresses with good reinforced edges are also easy to get in and get out of.

This may not be a bigger consideration for many but surely for sick, old, and injured, etc. So, the edge support is an important consideration to be made to avoid any uncertainty.

Is a double the same as a queen?

No, a double-size mattress is smaller than a queen. Measures 54 inches wide and 75 inches long is the measurement of a full-size mattress. Dimensions of queen bed are 60-inches by 80-inches.double size is also completely different from a queen mattress.

It measures 54 inches wide and 80 inches long. The difference might be looking smaller but not recommendable. 6-inches can still make a great impact on comfort.

Do queen mattresses come in different sizes?

Yes, there are significant variations in the sizes of queen beds. For example, a queen RV bed is five inches smaller than the regular size of queen beds.

On the other Olympic queen is six inches longer than the standard size. There are multiple changes like halved divided for easy customization built.

Final Thought

Better sleep is the ultimate purpose to consider when it comes to choosing a most practical size of a mattress. If you can have a restful sleep on some size, then it is the most perfect mattress size for you.

So, for a perfect purchase, you should be wholly aware that which the most practical size is for me. In any case, if you are not quite sure about the size of your mattress then ask the vendor for the measurement.

Moreover, another best option is to go with the labeled size of the mattress. There can only be uncertainty that the advertised size isn’t of your ask. You should also remember that linen sizes of beds aren’t often included.

So many customers come up with a linen size that is not practical for the bed. The best way to avoid this uncertainty is that go with a bigger size and then tuck it if it is bigger. Follow our guide and different sizes to come up with the best purchase for yourself.

Anita Rau Badami

About Anita

Anita Rau Badami was born in 1961 in India. Her father, who worked as a mechanical engineer and designed trains, was transferred every two or three years so that she had a mobile childhood.

She has always loved writing and sold her first short story when she was 18. She earned a bachelor’s degree in English from the University of Madras, after which she studied Social Communications Media in Sophia College, Bombay. She worked as a copywriter for advertising agencies in Bombay, Bangalore and Madras, and freelanced for major Indian newspapers for several years. She also published stories in children’s magazines.

She moved to Canada in 1991 and in 1995 was awarded a Master’s degree in English literature from the University of Calgary. Her graduate thesis became her first novel, Tamarind Mem, which was published worldwide in 1996.

Her bestselling second novel, The Hero’s Walk, won the Regional Commonwealth Writers Prize, Italy’s Premio Berto and was also named a Washington Post Best Book of 2001. It was also longlisted for the International IMPAC Dublin Literary Prize and the Orange Prize for Fiction, and shortlisted for the Kiriyama Prize. As well, she is the recipient of the Marian Engel Award for a woman writer in mid-career.


“Intoxicating…as jewel-bright and weightless as a silk sari shaken out of its folds…”

Tamarind Mem

“Engrossing …. Badami brilliantly brings to life a whole cast of [characters] …. The author masterfully captures the sights, smells and sounds of this lively world…

The Hero’s Walk

“Badami, a fluent and somewhat old-fashioned storyteller…. is to be commended for taking on this bitter subject, and for turning it not into a page-turning thriller but into a thoughtful, highly readable, and even slightly hopeful narrative. It deserves a wide readership.”

Can You Hear the Nightbird Call?

“Tell it to the Trees is heartwrenching, a touch frightening, and a major achievement by a remarkable author.”

Tell it to the Trees

Top 11 Best Fireworks Festivals Displays in the World

Best Fireworks Festivals Displays in the World

Are you a fan of fireworks? Imagine all those fireworks sparkling in the sky – oh, look at the red one! And check out that blue one! The culmination of long summer nights for some, while a Proust madeleine for others – fireworks are a source of wonder and magic, regardless of your age. From Rio to Vancouver and Sydney to Spain, fireworks are known to bring people from different cities and villages under one colorful banner.

Fireworks have a long tradition, dating back to a time when warding off evil spirits and battling enemies were top priorities. Indeed, humanity’s first firecracker went off in 200 BC, and it was the product of children’s endless creativity… using a simple bamboo stalk. As used in modern-day fireworks, Powder did not see the light of day until the 9th century AD due to adults being a little slower at displaying their talents. There is only a powder trail between the rumbling and destructive war that marked its first and strong use and our most spectacular Olympic Games, national holidays, and family gatherings.

Each fireworks festival is creative and more professional than the other, giving so many beautiful memories to make. We have come up with a list of some of the best firework festivals worldwide; let’s take a look!

01 – New Year’s Eve

Sydney Harbour, Australia

One of the best ways to ring in the new year is to be on a cruise with friends, sipping a cold beer, and enjoying the beautiful fireworks festival. It’s difficult to argue with one of the world’s most famous landmarks, some spectacularly grand fireworks over the Sydney Harbour Bridge complex, and the pleasant Aussie atmosphere. If you are unable to commandeer a ferry, there are numerous locations in Sydney that provide spectacular views of the fireworks.

Events occur in Sydney at all hours of the day, night, and even early hours of dawn.

02 – Festa del Redentore

Venice, Italy

Another popular firework festival is the Festa del Redentore which takes place in Venice on the third weekend of July. The Redentore feasts started as thanks to commemorating the end of the devastating plague of 1576, which killed an estimated 50,000 people. Suppose you manage to have a seat on one of the gondolas or decorated balconies in St Mark’s Basin. In that case, you will definitely love the spectacular view of the fireworks show, which lasts between 45 minutes to 60 minutes. Once the event has ended, you can join the crowd to go to the city of Lido and witness the beautiful sunrise. After having a long, unforgettable night – you can experience the avail the opportunity of having one of the best Venetian regattas of the year Sunday afternoon.

03 – Omagari National Fireworks Competition


With all the delicacy and poetry, the Land of the Rising Sun is renowned for having some of the best fireworks festivals, domestically called “hanabi,” meaning “fire flowers.” In summer, the fireworks season is at its peak, and you can witness some of the greatest cultural activities and fireworks performances. Here’s a look at some of the most impressive exhibits.

The Omagari National Fireworks Competition is one of the best fireworks festivals in Japan. Since it is a country that has immense love for people with pyrotechnics, this is a mesmerizing and stunning festival as you would imagine. The event takes place on the fourth Saturday of August, which involves only the 30 best firework artists of Japan. The fireworks festival is held on the dry bed of the Omono-gawa River in Omagari, Akita Prefecture. There are not only the widely awaited evening shows, but also daytime performances that are worth witnessing.

Another popular event is the Fukuroi Enshu Fireworks that takes place in the middle of South of Tokyo in Mid-August. It is well-known among amateurs for putting together the best fireworks experts in Japan. Put on your Sunday best and make a reservation to enjoy the best part of the Bon Festival between 7 and 9 p.m. You will witness the launch of 25,000 different types of fireworks to music, which will leave you in awe.

The Sumidagawa fireworks festival dates from the Edo period (1603-1868). In a time of drought and plague, the locals had a tradition of firing fireworks as a tribute to the God of Water to calm the souls of those who had passed away. These days, the traditional festival pits the best professionals against each other in a display where they are granted complete creative freedom in the Japanese capital. Since it is a Summer festival, it takes place on the last Saturday of July.

04 – Bonfire Night (Guy Fawkes Night)

United Kingdom

Every year on the 5th of November, Britain is set ablaze in commemoration of a failed attempt to blow up the Houses of Parliament in London in 1605. Across the country, bonfires with a burning effigy of Guy Fawkes, the man associated with the Gunpowder Plot, are lit. Although you can experience fantastic fireworks events in Inverness, Cardiff, and Derry, Blackheath in London is where it all began and hosts the most awaited show every year.

If you enjoy the fire with crackers, the men of Ottery St Mary in Devon roll burning barrels of tar through the streets, and a torchlit parade of ghastly ghouls and historical figures can be seen in Battle, East Sussex. On the other hand, if you love a flair for the theatrical, Tutbury Castle Staffordshire is where you must go to enjoy the Guy Fawkes story.

05 – Las Fallas

Valencia, Spain

Las Fallas is an outstanding pyrotechnic show with a lot of fire, as the name suggests. The event takes place in Valencia, lasting for four days, from the 15th of March to the 19th of March. The city offers stunning fireworks displays throughout the week, the final evening offers the largest and brightest views, and it is not to be missed. The Fallas or ninots, giant papier-mâché figures modelled after politicians and celebrities, are on display in the city during the festival. They are then packed with fireworks and set off ceremonially. The fireworks show is held in honor of Saint Joseph, and you can enjoy several activities across the city apart from watching the fireworks.

San Sebastian, in the Spanish Basque Country, has hosted the oldest Western fireworks competition since 1964. International pyrotechnic companies launch fireworks every night over La Concha Bay from the Alderdi Eder Gardens during the Semana Grande, which takes place around the 15th of August and honors the Virgin Mary. This is a must-attend European experience for anyone who loves pintxos and a little Spanish sass.

06 – American Independence Day

New York, US

The United nation celebrates its Independence Day on the 4th of July, and that too, in style. You can witness astonishing fireworks displays in every state of America. Although the competition is tough every year, most people agree that Macy’s Firework is the best event that occurs in New York. You can enjoy watching the fireworks show across the Hudson River from multiple spots across the city. The view is as thrilling as the name suggests, featuring more than 40,000 different forms of fireworks. The extravaganza is worth a look with its sheer scale. It is also one of the world’s longest-running fireworks shows that always pleases people across the country.

07 – Bastille Day

Paris, France

 Bastille Day

Commonly known as Bastille Day, it is the national day of France that takes place on every 14th of July. Whether you are an early riser or not, you would wake up early morning to witness the largest military parade in Europe, marching down Paris’ Champs-Élysées in the morning. Not only that, the dazzling fireworks light up the Eiffel Tower in the evening to give a beautiful view.

The event commemorates the storming of the Bastille, which has come to symbolize the French Revolution and the birth of the modern country.

08 – The Malta International Fireworks Festival

Malta, Europe

Saying that the fireworks festival held in Malta is considered a nation’s pride wouldn’t be wrong. You can hear the cracking and banging every day throughout between April and November. Even though pyrotechnics is rarely considered a professional on this small Mediterranean island, the Maltese are passionate about it and very good at it.

The international competition, which takes place in late April, brings together the best pyrotechnicians across the world. Canadian, Australian, Venezuelan, Italian, Spanish, Austrian, Portuguese, and Britishers are the most common competitors of the festival. For a truly spectacular display, the finalists launch their fireworks from small boats in the harbor of Valetta, Malta’s capital.

If you can stay a little longer in the country, you can also witness the amazing Catherine Wheel Contest that is held in early May every year. It is an unpopular and unusual festival, which sees various groups build and illuminate a Maltese wheel. This event is especially popular in Malta. These wheels are named after Saint Catherine of Alexandria, who was sentenced to death on a torture wheel. These wheels have a diameter of 30 meters and are used to build a roaring and hypnotizing fire wheel. What an incredible display it must be!

09 – The Celebration of Light


When we are the word ‘Canada,’ we usually think of frozen lakes, log cabins, harsh winters, and breath-taking landscapes. But this is not it; it also features a dizzying array of pyrotechnic activities that shed light on the country that has been voted the best quality of life in the world for many years running!

Canada has some of the most famous fireworks festivals globally, such as the Celebration of Light. The Vancouver fireworks festival includes three foreign teams battle for the title of most beautiful 25-minute fireworks show over three days. People come from different cities to experience this beautiful event that takes place in late July or early August.

Another awesome event is the GlobalFest that celebrates diversity and fostering respect and equality within local communities. Thousands of people attend the Human Rights and Youth forums, as well as the festival’s numerous cultural pavilions, performances, and foreign food stalls. The show-stopper is a fierce competition between five foreign pyrotechnic teams to produce the year’s most beautiful fireworks display set to traditional music from their home countries.

Another renowned festival takes place in the east of Canada, L’International des Feux Loto-Quebec (also called the Montreal fireworks festival). It is said to be one of the largest fireworks competitions worldwide, which is attended by three million people each year. The event is displayed from June to August, organized by some of the finest fireworks designers in the world. You wouldn’t want to miss it for anything!

10 – New Year’s Eve


When it comes to the New Year’s celebrations in Dubai, it is a lot more than just fireworks. Sure, watching these pyrotechnic marvels explode around the city is amazing, but combine that with LED lights and laser beam shows, and you’ve got yourself a fantastic evening. The world’s tallest building, Burj Khalifa, takes center stage as thousands of people assemble under a canopy of light, the mesmerizing show leaves people in awe of it. In fact, several people from around the world plan their trips to Dubai to witness one of the most amazing New Year’s festivals.

11 – The International Pyromusical Competition


Until 2010, the World Pyro Olympics were held on the other side of the world, in Manilla. The best pyrotechnicians from across the world competed in a five-day competition to see who could have the best skillset and techniques. Until the final, two teams competed against each other on a regular basis. The title was won by Australia, Italy and the United Kingdom were forced to change their name because the host country remained the same, which is against Olympic rules. And that is how the Philippine International Pyromusical Competition came into existence. The competition itself remains the same, with a fantastic six-week competition that takes place from February to March.

Rhinoceros Party Canada

The Rhinoceros Party (French: Parti Rhinocéros) is a Canadian federal-level satirical political party, referred to in English Canada as the Second Rhinoceros Party. It was known as until 2010, when the party changed names and registered a new party logo. It was created in Montreal on May 21, 2006, and recognized by Elections Canada as being eligible for registration on August 16, 2007, and an official political party on August 23, 2007. It is the successor to the Rhinoceros Party of Canada.

The party was founded by François “Yo” Gourd, who was involved with the original incarnation of the First Rhinoceros Party. He has said that he named the new party (then under the name “neorhino”) for the Rhinoceros Party and for Neo, the Matrix character. The party is led by Sébastien Côrriveau (who used the names “Sébastien CôRhino Côrriveau” and “Sébastien CoRhino” when running in the 2015 and 2019 federal elections, respectively).

It promises, like its predecessor, not to keep any of its promises if elected.

Rhinoceros Party of Canada (1963–1993)

The Rhinoceros Party (French: Parti Rhinocéros) was a registered political party in Canada from the 1960s to the 1990s. Operating within the tradition of political satire, the Rhinoceros Party’s basic credo, their so-called primal promise, was “a promise to keep none of our promises”. They then promised outlandishly impossible schemes designed to amuse and entertain the voting public.

The Rhinos were started in 1963 by Jacques Ferron, “Éminence de la Grande Corne du parti Rhinocéros”. In the 1970s, a group of artists joined the party and created a comedic political platform to contest the federal election. Ferron (1979), poet Gaston Miron (1972) and singer Michel Rivard (1980) ran against Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in his Montreal seat.

The party claimed to be the spiritual descendants of Cacareco, a Brazilian rhinoceros who was “elected” member of São Paulo’s city council in 1958, and listed Cornelius the First, a rhinoceros from the Granby Zoo, east of Montreal, as its leader. It declared that the rhinoceros was an appropriate symbol for a political party since politicians, by nature, are: “thick-skinned, slow-moving, dim-witted, can move fast as hell when in danger, and have large, hairy horns growing out of the middle of their faces”.

Some members of the Rhino party would call themselves Marxist-Lennonist, a parody of the factional split between the Communist Party of Canada and the Communist Party of Canada (Marxist-Leninist), although the Rhinoceros Party meant the term in reference to Groucho Marx and John Lennon.

The party used as its logo a woodcut of a rhinoceros by Albrecht Dürer, with the words D’une mare à l’autre (a French translation of Canada’s Latin motto a mari usque ad mare, playing on the word mare, which means pond in French) at the top.

Policies and politics

In addition to the national platform promises released by the party leadership, individual candidates also had considerable freedom to campaign on their own ideas and slogans. Bryan Gold of the Rhinoceros Party described the party platform as two feet high and made of wood: “My platform is the one I’m standing on”. A candidate named Ted “not too” Sharp ran in Flora MacDonald’s Kingston and the Islands riding with the campaign slogan “Fauna, not flora”, promising to give fauna equal representation. He also took a stand on abortion (promising, if elected, never to have an abortion) and capital punishment: “If it was good enough for my grandfather, then it’s good enough for me”. To strengthen Canada’s military, Sharp planned to tow Antarctica north to the Arctic Circle: “Once we have Antarctica, we’ll control all of the world’s cold. If another Cold War starts, we’ll be unbeatable”.

In the 1988 election, the Rhinoceros Party ran a candidate named John Turner in the same riding as Liberal leader John Turner, and received 760 votes. Penny Hoar, a safe sex activist, distributed condoms in Toronto while running under the slogan: “Politicians screw you — protect yourself”.

1979 campaign

  • Government:
    • The Queen of Canada would be seated in Buckingham, Quebec.
    • Rather than awarding money as prizes in the lottery, the winners would be appointed to the Senate of Canada.
    • Rather than patriate the constitution by bringing it to Canada, as proposed by Pierre Trudeau, the Rhinoceros Party pledged to bring Great Britain home and make it Canada’s eleventh province.
  • Energy:
    • Building one nuclear power plant per household, including monthly distributions of lead underwear to Canadians. Indoor lighting would then be provided by radioactive citizens.
    • Burning all the standing barns in Canada to provide energy, under the slogan Burn a barn for Britain.
  • Gender issues:
    • Alimony payments would go directly to the federal government, and responsibility for withholding those payments would fall upon the federal government.
    • Men would be allowed to work as prostitutes, wet nurses, secretaries and receptionists.

1984 campaign

  • Economy
    • The Rhinoceros Party pledged to eliminate small businesses, and replace them with very small businesses, having less than one employee.
    • Candidate Graham Ashley, standing in Ottawa-Vanier, pledged to take Canada off the Gold Standard, and implement a Snow Standard, which would improve the economy until the summer.
  • Public works
    • Candidate Stardust the Magician promised to put a roof on Olympic Stadium, using only a $25-million handkerchief.

Other campaigns

Other platform promises of the Rhinoceros Party included:

  • Repealing the law of gravity
  • Providing higher education by building taller schools
  • Instituting English, French and illiteracy as Canada’s three official languages
  • Tearing down the Rocky Mountains so that Albertans could see the Pacific sunset
  • Eliminating unemployment by abolishing Statistics Canada, thereby eliminating the bureaucrats that measure unemployment.
  • Making Montreal the Venice of North America by damming the St. Lawrence River
  • Abolishing the environment because it’s too hard to keep clean and it takes up so much space
  • Annexing the United States, which would take its place as the third territory in Canada’s backyard (after the Yukon and the Northwest Territories—Nunavut did not yet exist), in order to eliminate foreign control of Canada’s natural resources
  • Ending crime by abolishing all laws
  • To provide more parking in the Maritimes and to create the world’s largest parking lot respectively, paving the Bay of Fundy and the province of Manitoba 
  • Turning Montreal’s Saint Catherine Street into the world’s longest bowling alley
  • Amending Canada’s Freedom of Information Act: “Nothing is free anymore; Canadians should have to pay for their information”.
  • Making the Canadian climate more temperate by tapping into the natural resource of hot air in Ottawa.
  • Storing nuclear waste in the Senate: “After all, we’ve been storing political waste there for years”.
  • Adopting the British system of driving on the left; this was to be gradually phased in over five years with large trucks and tractors first, then buses, eventually including small cars, and bicycles and wheelchairs last.
  • Selling the Senate of Canada at an antique auction in California
  • Putting the national debt on Visa
  • Declaring war on Belgium because a Belgian cartoon character, Tintin, killed a rhinoceros in one of the cartoons
  • Offering to call off the proposed Belgium-Canada war if Belgium delivered a case of mussels and a case of Belgian beer to Rhinoceros “Hindquarters” in Montreal (the Belgian Embassy in Ottawa did, in fact, do this)
  • Painting Canada’s coastal sea limits in watercolour so that Canadian fish would know where they were at all times
  • Banning guns and butter, since both kill
  • Banning lousy Canadian winters
  • Building a bridge spanning the country, from Vancouver Island to Newfoundland.
  • Making the Trans-Canada Highway one way only.
  • Changing Canada’s currency to bubble gum, so it could be inflated or deflated at will.
  • Donating a free rhinoceros to every aspiring artist in Canada
  • Counting the Thousand Islands to see if the Americans have stolen any
  • Knocking down the Rocky Mountains and building giant bicycle paths sloping downhill in both directions, so Canadians could coast from coast to coast.

The Rhino Party also declared that, should they somehow actually win an election, they would immediately dissolve and force a second election: “We Rhinos think that elections are so much fun, we want to hold them all the time”. They also declared victory after one election, claiming all candidates were Rhinoceroses, whether they knew or acknowledged it: thick-skinned, short-sighted, mean-tempered, etc.

Notable candidates

Michel Rivard once went on television (during free air time given to political parties) and stated: “I have but two things to say to you: Celery and Sidewalk. Thank you, good night”.

A British Columbia splinter group proposed running a professional dominatrix for the position of party whip, renaming “British Columbia” to “La La Land”, moving the provincial capital, and merging with the Progressive Conservative Party so as “not to split the silly vote”.

Although not recognized in the United States, former baseball pitcher Bill Lee ran for President of the United States in 1988 on the Rhinoceros Party ticket. 

In the 2019 Canadian federal election, the Rhinoceros Party ran a candidate named Maxime Bernier in the riding of Beauce against the incumbent, unrelated Maxime Bernier, leader of the People’s Party of Canada. Neither candidate won, with both being defeated by Conservative Party candidate Richard Lehoux.

Electoral record

The Rhinoceros Party never succeeded in winning a seat in the House of Commons. In the 1984 federal election, however, the party won the fourth-largest number of votes, after the three main political parties, but ahead of several well-established minor parties. Rhino candidates sometimes came in second in certain ridings, humiliating traditional Canadian parties in the process. In the 1980 federal election, for instance, the Rhinoceros party nominated a professional clown/comedian named Sonia “Chatouille” Côté (“chatouille” means “Tickles” in French) in the Laurier riding in Montréal. Côté came in second place, after the successful Liberal candidate, but ahead of both other major parties: the third place New Democrat, and the fourth-place Progressive Conservative candidate. Chatouille received almost twice as many votes as the PC candidate.

Early in the party’s history, when it was mainly composed of French-speaking Québécois, they chose their only unilingual anglophone party member as their official translator.

Electoral results

Election# of candidates nominated# of seats won# of total votes% of popular vote% of vote in ridings contested
1972 (1)101,5650.02%undetermined


(1) The Rhinoceros Party ran 12 candidates in the 1972 election, but was not recognized as a registered party by Elections Canada, and therefore its candidates were listed as independents. (Source: Toronto Star, October 31, 1972.)

1993 abstention and subsequent dissolution

The party abstained from the 1993 federal election while they questioned the constitutionality of new rules that required the party to run candidates in at least 50 ridings at a cost of $1,000 per candidature. On September 23, 1993, Canada’s Chief Electoral Officer, Jean-Pierre Kingsley, refused to accept the party’s abstention and ordered the removal of the Rhinoceros Party from the Registry of Canadian Political Parties, effectively eliminating them from the Canadian political system. Kingsley also directed the party’s official agent, Charlie (le Concierge) McKenzie, to liquidate all party assets and return any revenues to the Receiver General of Canada. On instructions from the party, McKenzie refused. After two years of threatening letters, Ottawa refused to prosecute McKenzie, who now claims to hold the distinction of being Canada’s “least-wanted fugitive”.

In 2001, Brian “Godzilla” Salmi, who received his nickname because of the Godzilla suit he wore while campaigning, tried to revive the Rhinoceros Party to contest the British Columbia provincial election. While they pulled some pranks that earned some media coverage, only two of its candidates (Liar Liar in Vancouver-Mount Pleasant and Helvis in Vancouver-Burrard) appeared on the ballots, as the party claimed the $1000 candidate registration fee was a financial hardship. Unregistered candidates included Geoff Berner, who received national wire service coverage for promising “cocaine and whores to potential investors”. The party disbanded shortly thereafter.

Salmi later legally changed his name to Sa Tan. In 2007, Salmi filed a lawsuit against the federal government of the election rules that led to the disbanding of the Rhinoceros party, demanding $50 million compensation. As Salmi’s name is now legally “Sa Tan”, the lawsuit was filed under the name Sa Tan versus Her Majesty The Queen.


François Gourd, a prominent Rhino, later started another political movement, the entartistes, who attracted attention in the 1990s by planting cream pies in the faces of various Canadian politicians. In 2006, he led a group that set up in an attempt to recapture the Rhinoceros Party spirit, and ran as a Neorhino candidate in the 2007 Outremont by-election.

Other Rhinoceros Party members founded the Parti citron (Lemon Party), which attempted to bring a similar perspective to provincial politics in Quebec.

After the party’s dissolution, a number of independent election candidates informally claimed the Rhinoceros Party label even though the party itself no longer existed. There were also a number of unsuccessful attempts to revive the Rhinos as a legally incorporated political party, though this was not fully achieved until

On August 7, 2007, Brian Salmi, then-president of the Rhinoceros Party, announced a $50-million lawsuit contesting an election reform law that had stripped his party of its registered status in 1993.

Legally changing his name to Sa Tan, he had planned to run under the Rhino banner in the September 2007 by-election. However, a previous law from 1993 stated that registered parties must run candidates in at least 50 ridings, at a cost of $1,000 per riding, to keep their status. In protest of the new law, the party planned to abstain from the election. Canada’s then-chief electoral officer, Jean-Pierre Kingsley, rejected the abstention and ordered the party removed from the registry of Canadian political parties. The lawsuit was filed as a result of the removal from the national party registry by Mr. Kingsley. Since Salmi had legally changed his name, the lawsuit was filed as Sa Tan vs. Her Majesty The Queen.

The lawsuit was dropped after the ruling of the chief electoral officer was reversed in a new law passed in 2004 that said a party only had to run one candidate in a federal election or federal by-election to be considered registered.

Electoral record

To date, candidates of and the Rhinoceros Party have not recorded any electoral victories. Before the candidates that stood for the ridings of Outremont and Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot in the 2007 federal by-elections, and the Rhinoceros Party before them had not fielded a candidate since Bryan Gold’s failed bid to win a 1990 by-election in the New Brunswick electoral district of Beauséjour. candidates did not win any seats in the 2007 by-elections, the 2008 federal election, or the 2011 federal election.

2007/2008 by-elections

François Gourd1450.66/12OutremontSeptember 17, 2007
Christian Willie Vanasse3841.26/7Saint-Hyacinthe—BagotSeptember 17, 2007
John Turner1110.45/6Vancouver QuadraMarch 17, 2008

2008 federal election

Election# of candidates# of votes% of popular vote% in ridings run# of seats

2009 by-elections

Gabrielle Anctil1290.76/8HochelagaNovember 9, 2009